7 Important Medicinal Plants found in Assam, India


7 Important medicinal plants found in Assam

Rauwolfia : (As. Sarpagandha)
Scientific Name: Rauwolfia serntia.

Faimily: Apocynaceae

It is a perennial under shrub, groes in wild in the foot hills of Himalaya including Assam and central part of India. The name of the plant Rawuolfia derived from the name of the person Dr. Rauwolf who first described the plant. The plant is with erect stem, tuberous roots, leaves arranged in whorls; flowers are white or light pink.

Medicinal value and part used:

Rauwolfia has been used in Ayurvedic system since very early period the roots of the plant are used for obtaining drugs. About 20 different alkaloids, viz. serpentine, reserpiline, runwofinine, ajmaline etc. have been isolated from the plant. The most effective bio active alkaloid is reserpine. It very efficiently controls negative insomnia, schizophrenia, nervous break down and hypertension. Extract of roots are used in diarrhea and dysentery. It is also known to stimulate uterine contraction and therefore it is recommended for use in child birth.

2. Cinchona : (As. Cinchona)
Botanical Name : Cinchona officinalis
Faimily : Rubiaceae

This plant, a native of South America, is now cultivated throughout India including NE region, It has numbers of species of Which Cinchona officinalis is the most popular one. The term of Viceroy of Peru who was believed to be cured in 1638 from fever by the use of berks of the plant. Cinchona officinalies is a weak and slender tree plant, attaining height of 6-9 meters. This plant has simple opposite leaves and the flowers are small borne or terminal panicles.
Medicinal value and parts used:
The dried barks of stem, or root of the plant contain about 30various types of alkaloids of which the important are of quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine etc. Quinine is one of the most important and efficient medicine for treatment of maleria. Quinine is anti infective and analgesic and is used in cold, sickness and flue. It is also used in rheumatism, neuralgia, whooping cough and sciatica.

3. Indian Ginseng (As. Aswagandha)
Botanical Name: Withania somnifera
Faimily: Solanaceae

Ashwagandha is tree like plant and its efficiency was known to man from time immemorial. The medicinal uses of this plant have been mentioned in the ancient texts of Ayurveda.
Medicinal value and part used:

Ashwagandha is used as a tonic in geriatrics, in relieving hand and limb tremors of elderly people. It is used to promote strength and vigor and in the treatment of rheumatic pain, inflammation of joints and certain paralytic conditions. It is very effective in treatment of all types of nervous disorders and is used as sedative in the treatment of insanity and in hypertension. Whole plant is used to extract different forms of drugs.

4. Belladona
Botanical Name: Atropa Belladona
Faimily : Solanaceae

Belladona is a perennial herb with creeping roots, branched stem, alternatively arranged ovate leaves and bell shaped purplish flower.

Medicinal value and part used:

Dried leaves with other aerial parts are used for medical purposes. It contains many alkaloids such as atropine and hyposcyamine are most valuable. Paste of leaves and plant parts applied extensively to relive neuralgic pain. Extract is also used to check whooping cough and asthma, and to relieve pain in inflammation of muscles. This is also effective in negate heart palpitation and cardiac pain.

5. Neem (As.)
Botanical Name: Azadirachta indica
Faimily : Meliaceae

This tree is widely distributed all over India and has been planted by Social forestry department and by individuals. This plants are of great medicinal value. This is bitter in taste used as insecticide and in treatment of skin diseases, abscesses and fever. Boiled leaves used in small pox: seed oil have great economic value.

6. Tulsi (As. )
Botanical Name: Ocimum sanctum
Faimily : Lamiaceae

It is an under shrub. Hindus planted this plant in their house and worship it as a mark of goddess. It has great medicinal value.
Medicinal Value and Part used:
All the parts of the plant especially the leaves contain aromatic drugs, which are used for cure cold and cough. Leaf extract is useful in the treatment of malaria bronchitis and digestive disorders. The seeds relive urinary troubles.

7. Basaktika (As.)

Botanical Name : Justicia adhatoda
Faimily : Acanthaceae

It is an under shrub. It contains the alkaloids vaccine found mostly in roots, leaves and other parts of the plant. The drug form of juice or syrup and used as expectorant to relieve chronic cough, asthma and other respiratory tract infections.

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